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The general mission of ICO is to organize postgraduate training in a strong research-based environment. PhD candidates learn to advance scientific theories for understanding processes and systems of learning and instruction. These theories concern (a) learning processes and characteristics of the learning environment, including the teacher, that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of the learning process; (b) the organization of the curriculum and the school in relation to learning and instructional processes; (c) the role of educational policies in influencing the functioning of schools; and (d) theories of examination and assessment. Theory advancement within ICO is largely based on empirical studies and concerns educational science itself (e.g., instructional design theories and curriculum studies) or builds upon theories from other disciplines, more specifically psychology (e.g., cognitive and social psychology), neurosciences, sociology, and economics. Further information on vision, mission and objectives can be found in chapter 1.2 of ICO’s self evaluation report Interuniversity Center for Educational Research [ICO], 2010, pp. 10-11).